Lithium battery– LFP Vs NMC
The terms NMC and LFP have been popular recently, as the two different types of batteries vie for prominence. These are not new technologies that differ from lithium-ion batteries. LFP and NMC are two different tub chemicals in lithium-ion. But how much do you know about LFP and NMC? Answers to LFP vs NMC are all in this article!
When looking for a deep cycle battery, there are a few important factors to think about, including the battery’s performance, longevity, safety, price, and overall value.
Let’s compare the strengths and weaknesses of NMC and LFP batteries（LFP Battery VS NMC Battery).
What is an NMC battery?
In short, NMC batteries offer a combination of nickel, manganese, and cobalt. They are sometimes called lithium manganese cobalt oxide batteries.
luminous batteries have very high specific energy or power. This limitation of “energy” or “power” makes them more commonly used in power tools or electric cars.
In general, though, both types are part of the lithium iron family. However, when people compare NMC to LFP, they are usually referring to the cathode material of the battery itself.
The materials used in cathode materials can significantly affect cost, performance, and life. Cobalt is expensive, and lithium is even more so. Cathodic cost aside, which offers the best overall application? We are looking at cost, safety, and lifetime performance. Read on and make your ideas.
What is LFP?
LFP batteries use phosphate as a cathode material. An important factor that makes LFP stand out is its long-life cycle. Many manufacturers offer LFP batteries with a life of 10 years. Often seen as a better choice for “stationery” applications, such as battery storage or mobile phones.
The luminous battery is more stable than the NMC due to the addition of aluminum. They operate at roughly much lower temperatures. -4.4 c to 70 C. This wide range of temperature variations is more extensive than most other deep-cycle batteries, making it a perfect choice for most homes or businesses.
The LFP battery can also withstand high voltage for long periods. This translates into high thermal stability. The lower the thermal stability, the higher the risk of power shortages and fires, as LG Chem did.
Safety is always such an important consideration. You need to make sure that anything you add to your home or business goes through rigorous chemical testing to back up any “marketing” claims.
The debate continues to rage among industry experts and is likely to continue for some time. That said, LFP is widely considered a better choice for solar cell storage, which is why many top battery manufacturers now choose this chemical for their energy storage products.
LFP Vs NMC: What are the differences?
In general, NMCS is known for its high energy density, which means the same number of batteries will produce more power. From our perspective, when we integrate hardware and software for a project, this difference affects our shell design and cost. Depending on the battery, I think the housing cost of the LFP (construction, cooling, safety, electrical BOS components, etc.) is about 1.2-1.5 times higher than the NMC. LFP is known as more stable chemistry, which means the temperature threshold for thermal runaway (or fire) is higher than NCM. We saw this firsthand when testing the battery for the UL9540a certification. But there are also many similarities between LFP and NMC. Round-trip efficiency is similar, as are common factors that affect battery performance, such as temperature and C rate (the rate at which a battery is charged or discharged).
LFP Vs NMC: Price
This is probably the difference most people are more concerned about. In general, NMC batteries are more expensive than LFP batteries, because the raw materials for luminous batteries are more expensive than LFP batteries, and the earth is full of phosphorus and iron, but because the manufacturing cost of LFP batteries is higher and the process is more complex, lithium iron phosphate batteries are not cheap by comparison. Overall, the price difference between the two batteries is about 20% for the same capacity.
The winner is NMC
NMC batteries are often a bit less expensive than LFP batteries. Because NMC batteries are more common in the United States, their prices are a little bit lower. This is primarily due to economies of scale.
LFP batteries may require more work to transport and install because they are a little bit bigger. Due to their larger size, LFP cell cabinets may also require additional materials.
When it comes to larger-scale projects, the cost distinction between NMC and LFPs is unquestionably more important. Both forms of chemistry are often available for household solar in comparable quantities.
LFP Vs NMC: Energy density
The energy densities of NMC batteries are higher than that of LFP batteries at this stage, which means that the performance of deep cycle batteries is better than that of LFP batteries as the power batteries. High energy density means better acceleration performance. However, the LFP battery is superior to the NMC battery in energy storage. In simple terms, NMC batteries have good performance but poor battery life, and LFP batteries have poor performance but good battery life.
LFP Vs NMC: Temperature tolerance
Because the two batteries are made of different materials, they also have different temperature tolerances. The temperature resistance of the NMC battery is relatively balanced, and it can work normally in a normal low-temperature and high-temperature environment. LFP batteries have better high-temperature resistance than NMC batteries, but on the contrary, their low-temperature resistance is poor. At 0°C, the performance of LFP batteries will decrease by 10-20%, and at -20°C, the performance is only about 60% of the original.
LFP Vs NMC: Security
In terms of safety, the LFP battery is generally superior to the NCM battery. The chemical properties and structural framework of the LFP cell itself are very stable. Even if it is penetrated, squeezed hard, and thrown from a high altitude, it will not catch fire or explode, but smoke at best. On the contrary, the safety of NMC batteries is much worse, especially under abnormally high temperatures, the possibility of fire and explosion is relatively large, which is also one of the reasons for the criticism of NMC batteries.
The winner is LFP
The safety of an LFP battery is one of its main advantages. At higher temperatures, lithium iron phosphate is a more stable alloy than nickel manganese cobalt.
Additionally, LFP batteries are better able to manage higher power pulls. LFP batteries are less susceptible to thermal runaway as a result. LFP batteries are less prone to catch fire than NMC batteries, to put it briefly.
Not that installing an NMC battery will cause it to spontaneously ignite. However, there is a greater risk of problems arising if an NMC battery is subjected to excessive stress or is handled incorrectly. To reduce the likelihood of anything going wrong, it’s crucial to have your batteries installed by a licensed, reputable professional.
LFP Vs NMC: Cycle time
Because often used in some large power demand places, the cycle life of an NMC battery is often only about 800 times, while the cycle life of an LFP battery can reach an amazing 3000 times, and s if properly used, can reach more than 6000 times. It’s a very common thing. This means LFP batteries are more durable.
LFP Vs NMC: Service life
LFP batteries can last more than 10 years if used properly. Most NMC batteries only last about two to three years because they are often used for power needs. Lithium-iron phosphate batteries, by contrast, have a long life.
The winner is LFP
Additionally, NMC batteries have a higher energy density than LFP batteries of the same capacity, therefore they will be physically smaller. Homeowners often don’t have to worry about this, but if you do, you might want to think about an NMC battery.
LFP batteries degrade more gradually than NMC batteries, therefore they can store and discharge more electricity over time. Remember that the battery’s quality will also affect how long it lasts; therefore, before making a choice, you might wish to review the product guarantee.
A low-cost, shoddy LFP battery might not outlive an NMC battery of superior caliber. However, if you find a reliable installation, you won’t likely encounter many subpar batteries.
LFP Vs NMC: Performance
The winner is Tie.
The overall performance of NMC and LFP batteries is quite similar. Both varieties come in a range of sizes, ranging from 3 kWh to over 20 kWh. The average homeowner only needs about 10 kWh of storage, which both options will provide.
Having said that, there are a few minor variations between the two. Compared to NMCs, LFPs are somewhat more efficient and perform slightly better when the state of charge is low, while NMCs can endure colder temperatures better. However, if your battery is installed inside or if your region doesn’t see large temperature variations, you probably won’t need to be concerned about this.
LFP Vs NMC: Value
The winner is LFP
We did just remark that NMC batteries are less expensive up front, but LFP batteries offer somewhat better value.
To genuinely establish which battery offers the best value, it’s vital to take into account how much power it can produce. Because of their long lifespan, LFP batteries frequently outperform other types of batteries.
Which battery wins
In general, LFP batteries and NMC batteries have their advantages and disadvantages. It can be simply understood that lithium iron phosphate batteries trade low performance for high safety and long service life, while NMC batteries trade high performance. Partial safety and longevity.
We advise considering LFP batteries for your solar storage system based on the total value. LFP batteries perform just as well as NMC batteries on most criteria, last longer, and have better safety ratings while having a somewhat higher price tag.
NMC batteries are not to be completely avoided, though. If it’s simpler for you to obtain an NMC battery, by all means, do so. These batteries are still excellent at storing solar energy. If you don’t have much room to install a battery, you might also want to think about an NMC battery.
The installer you select is more crucial to your success than the battery chemistry you select. A trustworthy local battery installer can guide you every step of the way to help you discover the ideal battery for your particular needs in terms of size, kind, and cost. To protect the safety of your property, they’ll also make sure you have the best installation available.
LFP Vs NMC: How to choose to right one for you?
Commercially, the initial CAPEX of LFP batteries is usually priced more competitively than that of NMCS. I’ll summarize it here. LFP is about 20-30% cheaper in DOLLARS per kilowatt-hour, but system integration costs tend to be only about 5-15% cheaper at the beginning of the entire system life cycle. Capex based on end-of-life (EOL) is complicated. There needs to be a product-by-product or even project-by-project assessment of bike and calendar performance, warranty/guarantee, ease of enhancement, etc. – no clear answer.
Operationally, we like the LFP’s looser operating conditions — a wider temperature range than the NMC, and no need for reefer containers for transportation. In addition, LFP battery products generally support up to 1C operation, while NMC must use power battery, 2H or 4H different battery use battery, to support 1C rate (1 hour) application, the cost is higher. LFP batteries degrade faster in the first six months. If the project is large and needs to be delivered/debugged within a few months, this can cause confusion and problems as the first shipment of batteries may be relegated to, for example, 98% or 96% of the health of the last shipment of batteries.
We believe it is important that the awareness of NMC products and companies remains higher among customers and investors. But leading LFP batteries and companies have been catching up. Once the product is approved, customers can often easily adopt a new platform from the same company.
As a manufacturer, regarding LFP vs NMC, we are happy to see these two technologies competing against each other. It will promote the health of the industry, which is good news for customers. And most ESS customers are willing to use both technologies together. They will choose one or the other not because of technology differences, but based on overall life cycle costs, and they will continue to make decisions as the industry advances and as new technologies come to market.
Who is the winner of the NCM battery or LFP battery is an open question, mainly depending on your use scenario. If the pursuit of high performance, the NMC battery is the best choice; But if you’re looking for longevity and safety, LFP batteries are your better choice. And there is no doubt that LFP batteries are the most recommended for everyday DO-it-yourself battery packs or energy storage because what we ordinary people need is simple: durability and safety.