Lithium batteries can charge much faster than the lead-acid equivalent due to the higher efficiency of the electrochemistry, this characteristic allows the lithium battery to deliver and accept energy more efficiently, more than that, there are some lithium batteries that can take faster charging than the others, based on the different technologies.
Battery Management System as also known as BMS is the core component of a lithium battery, which controls and balances the lithium battery, and ensures the battery works as expected. The BMS is also the conclusive part of lithium batteries' fast charging.
The BMS has to have two key capabilities for the charging of lithium battery at the quickest possible capacity rate.
Firstly, the BMS must be able to handle the take in a high charging current without disconnecting or damaging the battery cells, this is the primary security mechanism adapted by the BMS. Usually speaking, 1 capacity rate of charging current is considered as high charging current, to make it clear, the charging rate of a lithium battery charging 1 capacity rate charging current is twice the 0.5 capacity rate charging current.
Secondly, the BMS shall be able to communicate with the charging devices (inverters, chargers, or any others) to take charging the batteries to a higher level, this is closed-loop communication. A top-tier BMS should be able to communicate and charge the battery with maximum power dynamically. The communication between the BMS and charging devices allows the different devices to exchange the battery states to achieve dynamic max power charging. Close-loop communication is one of the key factors of high-efficiency charging.
When it comes to lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries(without communication features), the battery charging will stick to one principle charging algorithm, considering the thermal rise and voltage changes, the charging will not be as efficient as the communicable lithium battery.